White-tailed Deer have the ability to change the structure and composition of forests throughout their range. This coupled with their proliferation have led some to term the whitetail an ecological keystone species. However, they are a keystone species in many other ways, including economics, social values and traditions, aesthetics, disease, and more. This is a 32-page conference proceedings from a meeting held in February 2009. It includes 23 abstracts from both aural and poster presentations.